This fourth kingdom which ruled over the Jews during the time of Jesus is the Roman Empire. This kingdom was diverse from the three kingdoms before it.
Daniel 7:7, “After this I saw in the night visions, and behold a fourth beast, dreadful and terrible, and strong exceedingly; and it had great iron teeth: it devoured and brake in pieces, and stamped the residue with the feet of it: and it was diverse from all the beasts that were before it; and it had ten horns.”
19 “Then I would know the truth of the fourth beast, which was diverse from all the others, exceeding dreadful, whose teeth were of iron, and his nails of brass; which devoured, brake in pieces, and stamped the residue with his feet;”
23 “Thus he said, The fourth beast shall be the fourth kingdom upon earth, which shall be diverse from all kingdoms, and shall devour the whole earth, and shall tread it down, and break it in pieces.”
The Roman Empire became divided into the western division and the eastern division.
This is a representation of the two legs of the great image in Daniel 2.
The territory of the western division of the Roman Empire was predominantly in central Europe.
The Pope and the Catholic Church combined with the Roman Emperor making the kingdom the Holy Roman Empire.
The Pope claimed to have power over the church and the state. The Emperor claimed to have power over the State and the Pope and Church. The Pope and the Roman Emperor each claimed control over the other.
The Holy Roman Empire was dissolved in 1806 during the Napoleonic Wars. The Holy Roman Empire went underground and was and is kept alive by the Catholic Church.
The eastern division of the Roman Empire became known as the Byzantine Empire.
The Byzantine Empire evolved into a Greek culture and language.
The Byzantine Empire was defeated by the Ottoman Turks in 1453 and ceased to exist.
The Beast Kingdom that rises out of the sea in Revelation 13:1-2 will be the revived Holy Roman Empire, the fourth kingdom.
1 And I stood upon the sand of the sea, and saw a beast rise up out of the sea, having seven heads and ten horns, and upon his horns ten crowns, and upon his heads the name of blasphemy.
2 And the beast which I saw was like unto a leopard, and his feet were as the feet of a bear, and his mouth as the mouth of a lion: and the dragon gave him his power, and his seat, and great authority.
This revived Roman Empire will rule the world and the Jews a second time.
In the time of the ten kings of the revived Roman Empire the God of Heaven will set up His kingdom which will never be destroyed.
Daniel 2:44, “And in the days of these kings shall the God of heaven set up a kingdom, which shall never be destroyed: and the kingdom shall not be left to other people, but it shall break in pieces and consume all these kingdoms, and it shall stand for ever.”