No, Jesus did not build His Church upon Peter.
Matthew 16:13-20 are some of the most misunderstood verses in the bible.
“13 When Jesus came into the coasts of Caesarea Philippi, he asked his disciples, saying, Whom do men say that I the Son of man am?”
14 “And they said, Some say that thou art John the Baptist: some, Elias; and others, Jeremias, or one of the prophets.”
15 “He saith unto them, But whom say ye that I am?”
16 “And Simon Peter answered and said, Thou art the Christ, the Son of the living God.”
17 “And Jesus answered and said unto him, Blessed art thou, Simon Barjona: for flesh and blood hath not revealed it unto thee, but my Father which is in heaven.”
18 “And I say also unto thee, That thou art Peter, and upon this rock I will build my church; and the gates of hell shall not prevail against it.”
19 “And I will give unto thee the keys of the kingdom of heaven: and whatsoever thou shalt bind on earth shall be bound in heaven: and whatsoever thou shalt loose on earth shall be loosed in heaven.”
20 “Then charged he his disciples that they should tell no man that he was Jesus the Christ.”
The subject here is about Jesus Christ being the Son of God.
In Matthew 16:15-17 Peter tells Jesus that He is the Christ, the Son of the Living God.
In verse Matthew 16:20, Jesus tells His disciples not to tell anyone that He is Jesus the Christ.
Jesus states that He will build His Church upon this rock (this truth) that He is the Son of God.
Jesus did not tell Peter that he would build his church upon him.
In verse Matthew 16:17, Jesus addresses Peter as Simon Barjona, (Simon son of Jonah) not Cephas meaning a stone.
Barjona-Strongs Exhaustive Concordance of the Bible #920-Son of Jonah-(or Jonah)
John 1:42, “And he brought him to Jesus. And when Jesus beheld him, he said, Thou art Simon the son of Jona: thou shalt be called Cephas, which is by interpretation, A stone.”
The word ‘rock’ in Matthew 16:18 does not stand for Peter or Jesus.
The word rock here means that Jesus will build His Church on the truth (rock) that He is the Son of God.
Jesus said He would build His Church.
Jesus Christ is the chief cornerstone of the Church, not Peter.
Matthew 21:42, “Jesus saith unto them, Did ye never read in the scriptures, The stone which the builders rejected, the same is become the head of the corner: this is the Lord’s doing, and it is marvellous in our eyes?”
Peter was sent to carry the gospel to the Jews.
Galatians 2:7, “But contrariwise, when they saw that the gospel of the uncircumcision was committed unto me, (Paul) as the gospel of the circumcision was unto Peter;”
Peter was not the leader of the Church.
The leaders of the Church were in Jerusalem.
1And certain men which came down from Judaea taught the brethren, and said, Except ye be circumcised after the manner of Moses, ye cannot be saved.
2 When therefore Paul and Barnabas had no small dissension and disputation with them, they determined that Paul and Barnabas, and certain other of them, should go up to Jerusalem unto the apostles and elders about this question.
Acts 15:6, “And the apostles and elders came together for to consider of this matter.”
After the Apostles and elders discussion, James gave his sentence.
Acts 15:13, “And after they had held their peace, James answered, saying, Men and brethren, hearken unto me:”
Acts 15:19, (James’ speaking) “Wherefore my sentence is, that we trouble not them, which from among the Gentiles are turned to God:”
James, Cephas, and John were pillars of the Church.
Galatians 2:9, “And when James, Cephas, and John, who seemed to be pillars, perceived the grace that was given unto me, they gave to me and Barnabas the right hands of fellowship; that we should go unto the heathen, and they unto the circumcision.”
Paul had to correct Peter when he was in Antioch.
11 “But when Peter was come to Antioch, I withstood him to the face, because he was to be blamed.”
12 “For before that certain came from James, he did eat with the Gentiles: but when they were come, he withdrew and separated himself, fearing them which were of the circumcision.”
13 “And the other Jews dissembled likewise with him; insomuch that Barnabas also was carried away with their dissimulation.”
14 “But when I saw that they walked not uprightly according to the truth of the gospel, I said unto Peter before them all, If thou, being a Jew, livest after the manner of Gentiles, and not as do the Jews, why compellest thou the Gentiles to live as do the Jews?”
Matthew 16:19 means that church leaders have the authority to carry out church discipline, legislation, and administration here on earth and the Lord in Heaven will honor their decisions.
Matthew 16:19, “And I will give unto thee the keys of the kingdom of heaven: and whatsoever thou shalt bind on earth shall be bound in heaven: and whatsoever thou shalt loose on earth shall be loosed in heaven.”
Matthew 16:19 does not give any person or church the power and authority to change God’s written word in any way.